Guide of Rome
The Colosseum: is an elliptical amphitheatre in the center of the city, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering.
Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started between 70 and 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus, with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81–96).
Capable of seating 50,000 spectators, the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles. As well as the gladiatorial games, other public spectacles were held there, such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased tobe used for entertainment in the early medieval era.
Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined due to damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum is aniconic symbol of Imperial Rome and its breakthrough achievements inearthquake engineering. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church.
The Basilica of Saint Peter : has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world, holding 60,000 people. It is regarded asone of the holiest Christian sites and has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world" and as "the greatest of all churches of Christendom".
Catholictradition holds that Saint Peter's tomb is below the altar of thebasilica. For this reason, many Popes, starting with the first ones,have been buried there. There has been a church on this site since the 4th century. Construction on the present basilica, over the old Constantinian basilica, began on April 18, 1506 and was completed on November 18, 1626.
St. Peter's is famous as a place of pilgrimage, for its liturgical functions and for its historical associations. It is associated with the papacy, with the Counter-reformation and with numerous artists, most significantly Michelangelo. Like all the earliest churches in Rome, it has the entrance to the east and the apse at the west end of the building.
The Monument of Victor Emmanuel II : The Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II (National Monument of Victor Emmanuel II) or Altare della Patria (Altar of the Fatherland) or "Il Vittoriano" is amonument to honour Victor Emmanuel, the first king of a unified Italy. It occupies a site between the Piazza Venezia and the Capitoline Hill. The monument was designed by Giuseppe Sacconi in 1895; sculpture for it was parceled out to established sculptors all over Italy. It was inaugurated in 1911 and completed in 1935.
The monument, "chopped with terrible brutality into the immensely complicated fabric of the hill", is built of pure white marble from Botticino, Brescia, and features majestic stairways, tall Corinthian columns, fountains, a huge equestrian sculpture of Victor Emmanuel and two statues of the goddess Victoria riding on quadrigas. The structure is 135 m (443 ft) wide and 70 m (230 ft) high. If the quadrigae and winged victories are included, the height is to 81 m (266ft). The base of the structure houses the museum of Italian Reunification.
The Pantheon : is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to all the gods of Ancient Rome, andrebuilt circa 126 AD during Hadrian's reign. It is the best preserved of all Roman buildings, and perhaps the best preserved building of its age in the world. It has been in continuous use throughout its history. Since the 7th century, the Pantheon hasbeen used as a Roman Catholic church. The Pantheon is the oldest standing domed structure in Rome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43.3 metres (142 ft).
Trevi Fountain : A traditional legend holds that if visitors throw a coin into the fountain, they are ensured a return to Rome. Among those who are unaware that the "three coins" of Three Coins in the Fountain were thrown by three different individuals, a reported current interpretation is that two coins will lead to a new romance and three will ensure either a marriage or divorce. A reported current version ofthis legend is that it is lucky to throw three coins with one's right hand over one's left shoulder into the Trevi Fountain.
Piazza Navona : is a city square in Rome. It follows the plan of an ancient Roman circus. Defined as a public space in the last years of 15th century, when the city market was transferred to it from the Campidoglio, the Piazza Navona is now the pride of Baroque Roman art history. It features sculptural and architectural creations by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, whose famous Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (Fountain of the Four Rivers, 1651) stands in the center; by Francesco Borromini and Girolamo Rainaldi, who designed the church of Sant'Agnese in Agone; and by Pietro da Cortona, who painted the galleria in the Pamphilj palace.
The Roman Forum : is located between the Palatine hill and the Capitoline hill of the city of Rome. It is the central area around which the ancient Roman civilization developed. Citizens referred to the location as the "Forum Magnum" or just the"Forum".
The oldest and most important structures of the ancient city are located in the forum, including its ancient former royal residency the Regia and the surrounding complex of the Vestal virgins. The Old Republic had its formal Comitium there where the senate, as well as Republican government began. The forum served as a city square and central hub where the people of Rome gathered for justice, and faith. The forum was also the economic hub of the city and considered to be the center of the Republic and Empire.
Baths of Caracalla: were Roman public baths,or thermae, built in Rome between AD 212 and 216, during the reign ofthe Emperor Caracalla. The extensive ruins of the baths have become a popular tourist attraction.
The bath complex covered approximately 13 hectares (33 ac). The bathbuilding was 228 meters (750 ft) long, 116 meters (380 ft) wide and 38.5meters (125 ft) estimated height, and could hold an estimated 1,600 bathers.
Cinecittà : The studios were founded in 1937 by Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini and his head of cinema Luigi Freddifor propaganda purposes, under the slogan "Il cinema è l'arma più forte" (Cinema is the most powerful weapon). The studios were bombed by the Western Allies during World War II. In the 1950s, Cinecittà was the filming location for several large American film productions like Ben-Hur, and then became the studio most closely associated with Federico Fellini.
GET OUT IN ROME
Among the areas recommended for a small night trip included the Piazza Campo dei Fiori (invaded by foreign students), the lively and friendly neighborhood Trastevere, Piazza della Pace and Piazza Navona.
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